Irregular Verbs in English

Parts Of Speech

Irregular Verbs are those verbs‏‎ which do not follow the normal rules of conjugation‏‎ in English‏‎.

In English, most verbs follow this pattern and are regular:

infinitivepast formpast participle‏‎
walkwalkedwalked

As you can see, they add an -ed to the end of the infinitive. Note that a verb like marry is also classed as regular even though the spelling changes slightly:

marry – married – married

However, irregular verbs do not always add -ed to the end and may have very different forms. Here is a full list of English irregular verbs showing any variations from the regular formation.

InfinitivePast FormPast Participle
Notes
abideabided/abodeabided/abode
arisearosearisin
awakeawakened/awokeawakened/awoken/awaked
backslidebackslidbackslidden/backslid
bewas/werebeen
bearboreborn/borne
beatbeatbeaten/beat
becomebecamebecome
befallbefellbefallen
begetbegot/begatbegottenbegat’ is preferred past tense in the King James Bible
beginbeganbegun
beholdbeheldbeheld
bendbentbent
beseechbeseechedbeseeched/besought
besetbesetbeset
betbetbet
bidbidbidin cards or an auction
bidbid/badebiddensay farewell
bindboundbound
bitebitbitten
bleedbledbled
blowblewblown
breakbrokebroken
breedbredbred
bringbroughtbrought
broadcastbroadcast/broadcastedbroadcast/broadcasted
browbeatbrowbeatbrowbeaten/browbeat
buildbuiltbuilt
burnburnt/burnedburnt/burned
burstburstburst
bustbusted/bustbusted/bust
buyboughtbought
castcastcast
catchcaughtcaught
chidechided/chidchided/chidden
choosechosechosen
cleaveclove/cleft/cleavedcloven/cleft/cleaved
clingclungclung
clotheclothed/cladclothed/clad
comecamecome
costcostcost
creepcreptcrept
crossbreedcrossbredcrossbred
crowcrowed/crewcrowed
cutcutcut
daydreamdaydreamed/daydreamtdaydreamed/daydreamt
dealdealtdealt
digdugdug
disprovedisproveddisproved/disproven
divedived/dovedived
‘dove’ is AmE
dodiddone
drawdrewdrawn
dreamdreamt/dreameddreamt/dreamed
drinkdrankdrunk
drivedrovedriven
dwelldweltdwelt
eatateeaten
fallfellfallen
feedfedfed
feelfeltfelt
fightfoughtfought
findfoundfound
fitfitfit
fleefledfled
flingflungflung
flyflewflown
forbidforbadeforbidden
forecastforecastforecast
forego/forgoforwentforgone
foreseeforesawforeseen
foretellforetoldforetold
forgetforgotforgotten
forgiveforgaveforgiven
forsakeforsookforsaken
freezefrozefrozen
fretfret/frettedfretted
frostbitefrostbitfrostbitten
gainsaygainsaidgainsaid
getgotgot/gotten
girdgirt/girdedgirt/girded
givegavegiven
gowentgone
grindgroundground
growgrewgrown
handfeedhandfedhandfed
handwritehandwrittenhandwritten
hanghunghung
havehadhad
hearheardheard
hewhewedhewn
hidehidhidden
hithithit
holdheldhidden
hurthurthurt
inbreedinbredinbred
inlayinlaidinlaid
inputinput/inputtedinput/inputted
interbreedinterbredinterbred
interweaveinterwove/interweavedinterwove/interweaved
interwindinterwoundinterwound
jerry-buildjerry-builtjerry-built
keepkeptkept
kneelknelt/kneeledknelt/kneeled
knitknit/knittedknit/knitted
knowknewknown
laylaidlaid
leadledled
leanleaned/leantleaned/leant
leapleaped/leaptleaped/leapt
learnlearned/learntlearned/learnt
leaveleftleft
lendlentlent
letletlet
lielaylain
lightlitlit
lip-readlip-readlip-read
loselostlost
makemademade
meanmeantmeant
meetmetmet
miscastmiscastmiscast
misdealmisdealtmisdealt
misdomisdidmisdone
mishearmisheardmisheard
mislaymislaidmislaid
misleadmisledmisled
mislearnmislearnt/mislearnedmislearnt/mislearned
misreadmisreadmisread
misspellmisspeltmisspelt
mistakemistookmistaken
misunderstandmisunderstoodmisunderstood
mowmowedmown
offsetoffsetoffset
outbidoutbidoutbid
outdooutdidoutdone
outdrinkoutdrankoutdrunk
outgrowoutgrewoutgrown
outrunoutranoutrun
outselloutsoldoutsold
outshineoutshoneoutshone
outspendoutspentoutspent
outthinkoutthoughtoutthought
overbidoverbidoverbid
overcomeovercameovercome
overdooverdidoverdone
overeatoverateovereaten
overhangoverhungoverhung
overhearoverheardoverheard
overlayoverlaidoverlaid
overrideoverrodeoverridden
overrunoverranoverrun
overseeoversawoverseen
overselloversoldoversold
overshootovershotovershot
oversleepoversleptoverslept
overtakeovertookovertaken
overthrowoverthrewoverthrown
partakepartookpartaken
paypaidpaid
pleadpleaded/pledpleaded/pled
prepayprepaidprepaid
presetpresetpreset
proofreadproofreadproofread
proveprovedproved/proven
putputput
quitquitquit
readreadread
rebuildrebuiltrebuilt
recastrecastrecast
redoredidredid
refitrefitrefit
remakeremaderemade
repayrepaidrepaid
rerunreranrerun
resellresoldresold
resetresetreset
rethinkrethought
rewindrewoundrewound
rewriterewroterewritten
ridridrid
rideroderidden
ringrangrung
riseroserisen
runranrun
sawsawedsawn
saysaidsaid
seesawseen
seeksoughtsought
sellsoldsold
sendsentsent
setsetset
sewsewedsewn
shakeshookshaken
shaveshavedshaven
shearshearedshorn
shedshedshed
shineshoneshone
shitshat/shitshat/shit
shootshotshot
showshowedshown
shrinkshrankshrunk
shutshutshut
singsangsung
sinksanksunk
sitsatsat
slayslewslain
sleepsleptslept
slideslidslid
slingslungslung
slinkslunkslunk
slitslitslit
smellsmeltsmelt
smitesmotesmitten
sneaksnuck/sneakedsnuck/sneaked
sowsowedsown
speakspokespoken
speedspedsped
spellspeltspelt
spendspentspent
spillspiltspilt
spinspanspun
spitspatspat
splitsplitsplit
spoilspoiltspoilt
spreadspreadspread
springsprungsprung
standstoodstood
stealstolestolen
stickstuckstuck
stingstungstung
stinkstankstunk
strewstrewedstrewn
stridestrodestridden
strikestruckstruck
stringstrungstrung
strivestrovestriven
swearsworesworn
sweepsweptswept
swellswelledswollen
swimswamswum
swingswungswung
taketooktaken
teachtaughttaught
teartoretorn
telltoldtold
thinkthoughtthought
throwthrewthrown
thrustthrustthrust
treadtrodtrodden
unbindunboundunbound
undergounderwentundergone
understandunderstoodunderstood
undertakeundertakeundertook
underwriteunderwroteunderwritten
undoundidundone
unwindunwoundunwound
upholdupheldupheld
upsetupsetupset
wakewokewoken
wearworeworn
weavewovewoven
wedwedwed
weepweptwept
wetwetwet
winwonwon
windwoundwound
withdrawwithdrewwithdrawn
withholdwithheldwithheld
withstandwithstoodwithstood
wreakwroughtwrought
writewrotewritten

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